## Signals and Systems Notes

Signals and Systems Notes – SS Notes – SS Pdf Notes

### According to R13 Syllabus Notes

Unit 1 : Part A –

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Unit 1 – Part B –

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Unit 2 –

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Unit 3 –

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Unit 4 –

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Unit 5 –

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**UNIT I**

SIGNAL ANALYSIS Analogy between vectors and signals, Orthogonal signal space, Signal approximation using orthogonal functions, Mean square error, Closed or complete set of orthogonal functions, Orthogonality in complex functions, Exponential and sinusoidal signals, Concepts of Impulse function, Unit step function, Signum function.

**UNIT II**

FOURIER SERIES REPRESENTATION OF PERIODIC SIGNALS Representation of Fourier series, Continuous time periodic signals, properties of Fourier series, Dirichlet’s conditions, Trigonometric Fourier series and Exponential Fourier series, Complex Fourier spectrum

**UNIT III**

FOURIER TRANSFORMS Deriving Fourier transform from Fourier series, Fourier transform of arbitrary signal, Fourier transform of standard signals, Fourier transform of periodic signals, properties of Fourier transforms, Fourier transforms involving impulse function and Signum function. Introduction to Hilbert Transform.

**UNIT IV**

SIGNAL TRANSMISSION THROUGH LINEAR SYSTEMS Linear system, impulse response, Response of a linear system, Linear time invariant (LTI) system, Linear time variant (LTV) system, Transfer function of a LTI system. Filter characteristics of linear systems. Distortion less transmission through a system, Signal bandwidth, system bandwidth, Ideal LPF, HPF and BPF characteristics, Causality and Poly-Wiener criterion for physical realization, relationship between bandwidth and rise time.

**UNIT V**

CONVOLUTION AND CORRELATION OF SIGNALS Concept of convolution in time domain and frequency domain, Graphical representation of convolution, Convolution property of Fourier transforms. Cross correlation and auto correlation of functions, properties of correlation function, Energy density spectrum, Parseval’s theorem, Power density spectrum, Relation between auto correlation function and energy/power spectral density function.Relation between convolution and correlation, Detection of periodic signals in the presence of noise by correlation, Extraction of signal from noise by filtering.

**UNIT VI**

SAMPLING Sampling theorem – Graphical and analytical proof for Band Limited Signals, impulse sampling, Natural and Flat top Sampling, Reconstruction of signal from its samples, effect of under sampling – Aliasing, Introduction to Band Pass sampling.

**UNIT VII**

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS Review of Laplace transforms, Partial fraction expansion, Inverse Laplace transform, Concept of region of convergence (ROC) for Laplace transforms, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Properties of L.T’s relation between L.T’s, and F.T. of a signal. Laplace transform of certain signals using waveform synthesis.

**UNIT VIII**

Z–TRANSFORMS Fundamental difference between continuous and discrete time signals, discrete time signal representation using complex exponential and sinusoidal components, Periodicity of discrete time usingcomplex exponential signal, Concept of Z- Transform of a discrete sequence. Distinction between Laplace, Fourier and Z transforms. Region of convergence in Z-Transform, constraints on ROC for various classes of signals, Inverse Z-transform, properties of Z-transforms.

**TEXT BOOKS: Signals and Systems Notes – SS Notes – SS Pdf Notes**

1. Signals, Systems & Communications – B.P. Lathi, BS Publications, 2003.

2. Signals and systems-A.Rama Krishna Rao-2008,TMH

3. Signals and Systems – A.V. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and S.H. Nawab, PHI, 2nd Edn.

**REFERENCES: Signals and Systems Notes – SS Notes – SS Pdf Notes**

1. Signals & Systems – Simon Haykin and Van Veen,Wiley, 2nd Edition.

2. Introduction to signal and system analysis – K.Gopalan 2009,CENGAGE Learning.

3.Fundamental of signals and systems-Michel J Robert 2008 MGH International Edition.

4. Signals, Systems and Transforms – C. L. Philips, J.M.Parr and Eve A.Riskin, Pearson education., 3rd Edition, 2004.

**Note :- These notes are according to the r09 Syllabus book of**** ****JNTUH.In R13 ,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in r13 syllabus.Click here to check all the JNTU Syllabus books **