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Envinromental Studies Notes (ES)

Envinromental Studies Notes

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Contents – Envinromental Studies Notes 

  • UNIT 1: THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL
    STUDIES – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    1.1 DEFINITION, SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE
    1.1.1 Definition
    1.1.2 Scope
    1.1.3 Importance
    1.2 NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS
    1.2.1 Institutions in Environment
    1.2.2 People in Environment

 

  • UNIT 2: NATURAL RESOURCES – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2.2 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES
    2.2.1 Natural resources and associated problems
    2.2.2 Non-renewable resources
    2.2.3 Renewable resources
    a. Forest Resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies.
    Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people
    b. Water Resources: Use and over-utilisation of surface and ground water,
    floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams – benefits and problems.
    c. Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting
    and using mineral resources, case studies.
    d. Food Resources: World food problems, Changes in landuse by agriculture and
    grazing, Effects of modern agriculture, Fertilizer/ pesticide problems,
    Water logging and salinity
    e. Energy Resources: Increasing energy needs, Renewable/ non renewable, Use of Alternate energy sources, Case studies
    f. Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man-induced land-slides, soil erosion and desertification.
    2.3 ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
    2.4 EQUITABLE USE OF RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES

 

  • UNIT 3: ECOSYSTEMS – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    3.1 Concept of an ecosystem
    3.1.1 Understanding ecosystems
    3.1.2 Ecosystem degradation
    3.1.3 Resource utilisation
    3.2 Structure and functions of an ecosystem
    3.3 Producers, consumers and decomposers
    3.4 Energy flow in the ecosystem
    3.4.1 The water cycle
    3.4.2 The Carbon cycle
    3.4.3 The Oxygen cycle
    3.4.4 The Nitrogen cycle
    3.4.5 The energy cycle
    3.4.6 Integration of cycles in nature
    3.5 Ecological succession
    3.6 Food chains, Food webs and Ecological pyramids
    3.6.1 The food chains
    3.6.2 The food webs
    3.6.3 The ecological pyramids
    3.7 Introduction, Types, Characteristic features, Structure and functions
    3.7.1 Forest ecosystem
    3.7.2 Grassland ecosystem
    3.7.3 Desert ecosystem
    3.7.4 Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, estuaries, oceans)

 

  • UNIT 4: BIODIVERSITY AND ITS CONSERVATION – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    4.1 INTRODUCTION – DEFINITION: GENETIC, SPECIES, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
    4.1.1 Genetic diversity
    4.1.2 Species diversity
    4.1.3 Ecosystem diversity
    4.2 BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA4.3 VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY: CONSUMPTIVE, PRODUCTIVE USE, SOCIAL, ETHICAL,
    AESTHETIC AND OPTION VALUES
    4.3.1Consumptive value
    4.3.2 Productive value
    4.3.3 Social value
    4.3.4 Ethical value
    4.3.5 Aesthetic value
    4.3.6 Option value
    4.4 BIODIVERSITY AT GLOBAL, NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
    4.5 INDIA AS A MEGA DIVERSITY NATION
    4.6 HOTSPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY
    4.7 THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY: HABITAT LOSS, POACHING OF WILDLIFE,
    MAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS
    4.8 ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA
    4.8.1 Common Plant species
    4.8.2 Common Animal species
    4.9 CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY: IN-SITU AND EX-SITU 104
    4.9.1 In-situ conservation
    4.9.2 Ex-situ conservation

 

  • UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    5.1 DEFINITION
    5.2 CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES OF:
    5.2.1 Air Pollution
    5.2.2 Water Pollution
    5.2.3 Soil Pollution
    5.2.4 Marine Pollution
    5.2.5 Noise Pollution
    5.2.6 Thermal Pollution
    5.2.7 Nuclear hazards
    5.3 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT: CAUSES, EFFECTS AND CONTROL MEASURES
    OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE
    5.4 ROLE OF INDIVIDUALS IN POLLUTION PREVENTION5.5 POLLUTION CASE STUDIES
    5.6 DISASTER MANAGEMENT: FLOODS, EARTHQUAKES, CYCLONES, LANDSLIDES

 

  •  UNIT 6: SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT – Envinromental Studies Notes 
  • 6.1 FROM UNSUSTAINABLE TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
    6.2 URBAN PROBLEMS RELATED TO ENERGY
    6.3 WATER CONSERVATION, RAIN WATER HARVESTING, WATERSHED
    MANAGEMENT
    6.3.1 Water conservation
    6.3.2 Rain water harvesting
    6.3.3 Watershed management
    6.4 RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILITATION OF PEOPLE; ITS PROBLEMS
    AND CONCERNS. CASE STUDIES
    6.5 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS: ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
    6.5.1 Resource consumption patterns and the need for their equitable utilisation
    6.5.2 Equity – Disparity in the Northern and Southern countries
    6.5.3 Urban – rural equity issues
    6.5.4 The need for Gender Equity
    6.5.5 Preserving resources for future generations
    6.5.6 The rights of animals
    6.5.7 The ethical basis of environment education and awareness
    6.5.8 The conservation ethic and traditional value systems of India
    6.6 CLIMATE CHANGE, GLOBAL WARMING, ACID RAIN, OZONE LAYER DEPLETION,
    NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST. CASE STUDIES
    6.6.1 Climate change
    6.6.2 Global warming
    6.6.3 Acid rain
    6.6.4 Ozone layer depletion
    6.6.5 Nuclear Accidents and Nuclear Holocaust
    6.7 WASTELAND RECLAMATION
    6.8 CONSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS
    6.9 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT
    6.10 AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT
    6.11 WATER (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT
    Preliminary Pages.6.12 WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT
    6.13 FOREST CONSERVATION ACT
    6.14 ISSUES INVOLVED IN ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
    6.14.1Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
    6.14.2 Citizens actions and action groups
    6.15 PUBLIC AWARENESS
    6.15.1 Using an Environmental Calendar of Activities 204
    6.15.2 What can I do?

 

  • UNIT 7: HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    7.1 POPULATION GROWTH, VARIATION AMONG NATIONS
    7.1.1 Global population growth
    7.2 POPULATION EXPLOSION – FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAM
    7.2.1 Methods of sterilization
    7.1.2 Urbanization
    7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN HEALTH
    7.3.1 Environmental health
    7.3.2 Climate and health
    7.3.3 Infectious diseases
    7.3.4 Water-related diseases
    7.3.5 Risks due to chemicals in food
    7.3.6 Cancer and environment
    7.4 HUMAN RIGHTS
    7.4.1 Equity
    7.4.2 Nutrition, health and human rights
    7.4.3 Intellectual Property Rights and Community Biodiversity Registers
    7.5 VALUE EDUCATION
    7.5.1 Environmental Values
    7.5.2 Valuing Nature
    7.5.3 Valuing cultures
    7.5.4 Social justice
    7.5.5 Human heritage
    7.5.6 Equitable use of Resources
    7.5.7 Common Property Resources
    7.5.8 Ecological degradation
    7.6 HIV/AIDS7.7 WOMEN AND CHILD WELFARE
    7.8 ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

 

  • UNIT 8: FIELD WORK – Envinromental Studies Notes 
    8.1 VISIT TO A LOCAL AREA TO DOCUMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS,
    RIVER/FOREST/GRASSLANDS/HILL/MOUNTAIN
    8.2 VISIT TO A LOCAL POLLUTED SITE
    8.3 STUDY OF COMMON PLANTS, INSECTS, BIRDS
    8.4 STUDY OF SIMPLE ECOSYSTEMS

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One comment

  1. thank you
    i want electronic circuits and network theory subject materials of b.tech 2-2 semisters

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