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# Antenna Wave Propagation Notes (AWP)

## Antenna Wave Propagation Notes – AWP Notes

Please find the Notes below according to the New and Old Syllabus:

Old and Lecturer Notes links are below (only 3 units are available)

• UNIT I Antenna Basics:

Introduction. Basic Antenna Parameters – Patterns, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity. Beam Efficiency, Directivity-Gain-Resolution. Antenna Apertures, Effective Height. Illustrative Problems. Fields from Oscillating Dipole, Field Zones, Shape-Impedance Considerations, Antenna Temperature, Front – to-back Ratio, Antenna Theorems, Radiation- Basic Maxwell’s Equations, Retarded Potentials – Helmholtz Theorem

Unit – 1

• UNIT II Thin Linear Wire Antennas – Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Radiation from Small Electric Dipole, Quarter Wave Monopole and Half Wave Dipole – Current Distributions, Field Components, Radiated Power, Radiation Resistance, Beam Width, Directivity, Effective Area and Effective Height, Natural Current Distributions, Far Fields and Patterns of Thin Linear Centre-fed Antennas of Different Lengths, Illustrative Problems. Loop Antennas — Introduction, Small Loop. Comparison of Far Fields of Small Loop and Short Dipole, Radiation Resistances and Directivities of Small and Large Loops (Qualitative Treatment).

Unit – 2 : N/A

• UNIT III Antenna Arrays: Point Sources — Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Definition, Patterns, arrays of 2 Isotropic Sources – Different Cases, Principle of Pattern Multiplication, Uniform Linear Arrays – Broadside Arrays, Endﬁre Arrays, EFA with Increased Directivity. Derivation of their Characteristics and Comparison, BSAs with Non-uniform Amplitude Distributions — General Considerations and Binomial Arrays, Illustrative Problems.

Unit – 3 : N/A

• UNIT IV VHF. UHF and Microwave Antennas – I : Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Arrays with Parasitic Elements. Yagi-Uda Array. Folded Dipoles and their Characteristics, Helical Antennas – Helical Geometry. Helix Modes. Practical Design Considerations for Monofilar Helical Antenna in Axial and Normal Modes. Horn Antennas -Types, Fermat’s Principle, Optimum Horns. Design Considerations of Pyramidal Horns, Illustrative Problems.

Unit – 4

• UNIT V VHF, UHF and Microwave Antennas – II: Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Microstrip Antennas ~- Introduction. Features, Advantages and Limitations. Rectangular Patch Antennas — Geometry and Parameters, Characteristics of Microstrip Antennas. Impact of Different Parameters on Characteristics, Reflector Antennas — Introduction, Flar Sheet and Corner Reﬂectors, Paraholoidal Reﬂectors — Geometry. Pattern Characteristics, Feed Methods. Reﬂector Types – Related Features. Illustrative Problems.

Unit – 5

• UNIT VI Lens Antennas – Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Introduction, Geometry of Non–metallic Dielectric Lenses, Zoning, Tolerances, Applications. Antenna Measurements: Introduction. Concepts – Reciprocity, Near and Far Fields, Coordinate System, Sources of Errors. Patterns to be Measured, Pattern Measurement Arrangement, Directivity Measurement. Gain Measurements (by Comparison, Absolute and 3-Antenna Methods)

Unit – 6 : N/A

• UNIT VII Wave Propagation – I: Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Introduction, Deﬁnitions, Categorizations and General Classifications, Different Modes of Wave Propagation, Ray/Mode Concepts. Ground Wave Propagation (Qualitative Treatment) — introduction, Platte Earth Reﬂections, Space and Surface Waves, Wave Tilt, Curved Earth Reﬂections. Space Wave Propagation – Introduction. Field Strength Variation with Distance and Height, Effect ofEarth‘s Curvature. Absorption. Super Refraction. M-Curves and Duct Propagation. Scattering Phenomena. Tropospheric Propagation, Fading and Path Loss Calculations.

Unit – 7 : N/A

• UNIT VIII Wave Propagation – II: Antenna Wave Propagation Notes

Sky Wave Propagation — Introduction. Structure of ionosphere, Refraction and Reﬂection of Sky Waves by ionosphere, Ray Path, Critical Frequency, MUF, LUF, OF, Virtual Hlght and Skip Distance. Relation between and Skip Distance, Multi-hop Propagation. Energy Loss in ionosphere. Summary of Wave Characteristics in Different Frequency Ranges.

Unit – 8 : N/A

TEXT BOOKS : 1. Antennas for All Applications – John D. Kraus and Ronald J. Marhefka, TMHl, 3rd Edn., 2003. 2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI, 2nd ed., 2000.

Note :- These notes are according to the r09 Syllabus book of JNTUH.In R13 ,8-units of R09 syllabus are combined into 5-units in r13 syllabus.Click here to check all the JNTU Syllabus books